Doctorates following the traditional model still make up the majority of PhDs in Germany compared to structured programmes. For doctoral candidates from abroad, a traditional PhD requires a great deal of initiative, autonomy and tenacity.
Many postdocs are academic staff working at a university or research institution. Their salary is not generous, but much better than that of doctoral students.
Although there are positive signs of change, working conditions for postdocs in Germany remain difficult. Andreas Keller, director of the GEW explains exactly where the problems lie and what changes still need to be made.